AngloAustrian economists and ecologist
Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher (16 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential economic thinker with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain.
He is best known for his critique of Western economies and his proposals for human-scale, decentralized and appropriate technologies. His bookSmall Is Beautiful (1973) was translated into many languages and brought him international fame. Schumacher's basic development theories have been summed up in the catch-phrases Intermediate Size and Intermediate Technology.
His other notable work is the 1977 A Guide For The Perplexed, which is a critique of materialist scientism and an exploration of the
nature and organization of knowledge.
Together with long-time friends and associates like Professor Mansur Hoda, Schumacher founded the Intermediate Technology Development Group (now Practical Action) in 1966.
Schumacher was influenced John Bennett, who attempted to integrate scientific research with the philosophic and esoteric ideas of G. I. Gurdjieff and his one-time pupil P. D. Ouspensky.